Chào các bạn, mọi người đã hoàn thành bài tập về So, Therefore, But, However chưa nhỉ? Nếu đã nắm được rồi thì hôm nay chúng ta lại tiếp tục với một số liên từ mới, đó là Although, Though, Even though, Despite hay In spite of. Đây cũng là phần khá trọng tâm trong chuyên đề ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản, vậy nên hãy học thật kỹ nhé.
Bạn đang xem: cách dùng although và in spite of/despite violet
Although/ Even though/ Though/ Despite/ In spite of đều được sử dụng để diễn tả sự tương phản, đối lập, mang nghĩa là “mặc dù, dù cho”, tuy nhiên lại có sự khác biệt rất lớn về cấu trúc giữa chúng.
I. Although/ Even though/ Though
- Ba liên từ này thường ở đầu câu hoặc giữa hai mệnh đề. Nếu đứng đầu câu thì giữa 2 mệnh đề phải có dấu phẩy
- Although/ though/ even though đều có cùng nghĩa nhưng though khi đứng ở đầu câu giúp câu nói trở nên trang trọng hơn so với khi nó đứng giữa hai mệnh đề còn even though mang nghĩa nhấn mạnh hơn
- Đôi khi trong văn nói, chúng ta thường dùng though ở cuối câu.
Although/ though/ even though + S + V….., S + V…
Ví dụ:1. Although I don’t agree with him, I think he’s honest. (Mặc dù tôi không đồng ý với anh ta nhưng tôi nghĩ anh ta rất thành thật.)2. She went on walking though she was terribly tired. (Cô ấy vẫn tiếp tục đi bộ dù chô cô ấy đã rất mệt.)
3. We went out even though it was raining. (Chúng tôi đã ra ngoài dù trời đang mưa.)4. The food of this restaurant isn’t delicious. I like the decoration though. (Thức ăn ở nhà hàng này không ngon nhưng tôi khá thích cách trang trí.)
II. In spite of/ Despite
In spite of/ Despite + Noun/ Noun phrase/ Gerund phrase
- Despite và in spite of đứng trước một danh từVí dụ:We went out in spite of the rain. (Chúng tôi đã đi ra ngoài chơi dù trời mưa.)
- Despite và in spite of đứng trước đại từ (this/ that/ what)Ví dụ:Despite his sickness, he still had to go to school. (Dù bị đau nhưng cậu bé vẫn phải đi học.)
- Despite và in spite of đứng trước V-ingVí dụ:Despite being ill, Mary still went to school. (Dù bị ốm nhưng Mary vẫn đi học.)
- Chúng ta có thể sử dụng in spite of và despite với cụm từ “the fact that”Ví dụ:The holiday was great despite the fact that hotel wasn’t so comfortable. (Kỳ nghỉ rất tuyệt cho dù sự thật là khách sạn không được thoải mái lắm).
- Cả despite và in spite of có thể được dùng ở mệnh đề đầu hoặc mệnh đề thứ hai đều được.Ví dụ:Despite not understanding the words, I knew what he wanted.= I knew what he wanted despite not understanding the words. (Dù không hiểu từ ngữ nhưng tôi biết điều mà anh ta muốn.)Tuy nhiên, câu đầu nhấn mạnh việc “không hiểu” còn câu thứ 2 nhấn mạnh việc “biết điều mà anh ta muốn”
III. Các công thức biến đổi từ mệnh đề sang cụm từ như sau, tức là biến đổi câu với Although sang câu với Despite
1. Nếu chủ ngữ của 2 mệnh đề giống nhau thì ta bỏ chủ ngữ rồi lấy động từ thêm -ing
Although + S + V → In spite of/ Despite + V_ing
Ví dụ:Although he was ill, he still went to school.→ Despite being ill, he still went to school. (Dù cho anh ta bị ốm nhưng anh ấy vẫn đi học.)
2. Nếu chủ ngữ là danh từ + be + tính từ thì ta đem tính từ đặt trước danh từ, bỏ to be
Although + The + N + Be + Adj → In spite of/Despite + The + Adj + N
Ví dụ:Although the car was dirty, he didn’t wash it.→ Despite / in spite of the dirty car, he didn’t wash it. (Dù chiếc ô tô rất bẩn nhưng anh ta vẫn không rửa nó.)
3. Nếu chủ ngữ là đại từ + be + tính từ thì ta đổi đại từ thành sở hữu, đổi tính từ thành danh từ, bỏ be
Although + S + Be + Adj → In spite of/ Despite + His /her/ their + N
Ví dụ:Although he was ill, he still went to school.→ Despite his illness, he still went to school. (Dù cho anh ta bị ốm nhưng anh ấy vẫn đi học.)
4. Nếu chủ từ là đại từ + động từ + trạng từ thì ta đổi đại từ thành sở hữu, động từ thành danh từ ,trạng từ thành tính từ đặt trước danh từ
Although + S + V + Adv → In spite of/ Despite + His/ her/ their + Adj + N
Ví dụ:Although He behaves impolitely, everybody still loves him.→ Despite/ in spite of his impolite behavior, everybody still loves him.
5. Nếu câu có dạng there be + danh từ thì ta bỏ there be chỉ giữ lại danh từ
Although + There + Be + Noun → In spite of/ Despite + Noun
Ví dụ:Although there was the traffic jam, we went home early.→ Despite / in spite of the traffic jam, we went home early.
6. Nếu câu có dạng It (be) + tính từ về thời tiết. Đổi tính từ thành danh từ thêm “the” phía trước
Although + It + Be + Adj → In spite of/ Despite + Noun
Ví dụ:Although it was rainy, the children were still happy to play in the garden.→ Despite / in spite of the rain, the children were still happy to play in the garden.
7. Nếu câu có dạng Danh từ + (be) + V3/ed (câu bị động) thì ta đổi V3/ed thành danh từ rồi thêm the phía trước và of phía sau, danh từ ở câu gốc đem xuống để sau of
Although + Noun + Be + V3/ed → In spite of/ Despite + The Noun + of + Noun
Ví dụ:Although television was invented, my father still keeps the habit of reading newspaper.→ Despite / in spite of the invention of television, my father still keeps the habit of reading newspaper. (Dù cho TV đã được phát minh nhưng bố tôi vẫn giữ thói quen đọc báo.)
8. Thêm the fact that trước mệnh đề
Although + S + V → In spite of/ Despite + The fact that + S + V
Ví dụ:Although I studied very hard, I failed the placement test.→ Despite the fact that I studied very hard, I failed the placement test.
IV. Bài tập
Exercise 1: Choose the best answer to complete these sentences.1. _______ he likes chocolate, he tries not to eat it.A. as B .though C. since D. despite2. _______________ he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car.A. In spite B. In spite of C. Despite D. Although3. _______________, he walked to the station.A. Despite being tired B. Although to be tired C. In spite being tired D. Despite tired4. ________________ her lack of hard work, she was promoted.A. Because B. Even though C. In spite of D. Despite of5. She left him _______________ she still loved him.A. even if B. even though C. in spite of D. despite6. Last night we came to the show late _______the traffic was terrible.A. although B. despite C. and D. because7. _______there is a lot of noise in the city, I prefer living there.A. despite B. in spite of C. because of D. though8. _______ the weather, we went sailing.A. despite B. in spite of C. although D. A and B9. _______Hudson led early, he lost the race.A. though B. although C. even though D. all are correct10. In spite of not speaking French, Mike decided to settle in Paris.A. Even though Mike didn’t speak French, but he decided to settle in Paris.B. Mike decided to settle in Paris despite he didn’t speak French.C. Mike decided to settle in Paris though the fact that not speaking French.D. Although Mike didn’t speak French; he decided to settle in Paris.11. Mr. Ba was late for the meeting though he took a taxi.A. Even though taking a taxi, Mr. Ba was late for the meeting.B. In spite of taking a taxi, but Mr. Ba was late for the meeting.C. Mr. Ba was late for the meeting despite the fact he took a taxi.D. Mr. Ba was late for the meeting although having taken a taxi.12. We came to the meeting on time though the traffic was heavy.A. Despite the traffic was heavy; we came to the meeting on time.B. In spite of the heavy traffic, we came to the meeting on time.C. Even though the heavy traffic, we came to the meeting on time.D. Although the traffic was heavy, but we came to the meeting on time.13. Although he took a taxi, Bill still arrived late for the concert.A. Bill arrived late for the concert whether he took a taxi or not.B. Bill arrived late for the concert because of the taxi.C. In spite of taking a taxi, Bill arrived late for the concert.D. Bill took a taxi to the concert, but he couldn’t catch it.14. Although she is rich, she can’t afford to buy the car.A. She doesn’t have enough money to buy the car she likes. B. Rich as she is, she can’t afford to buy the car.C. The car is too expensive for her to buy. D. She wants to buy the car but it costs a lot.15. Although Sue felt tired, she stayed up late talking to Jill.A. Despite feeling tired, Sue stayed up late talking to Jill.B. In spite feeling tired, Sue stayed up late talking to Jill.C. Sue wouldn’t feel tired despite staying up late talking to Jill.D. Sue stayed up late talking to Jill. As a result, she was tired.16. Even though Trung had a bad cold, he went to the concert.A. In spite of his bad cold, Trung went to the concert.B. Trung had a bad cold because he went to the concert.C. Trung went to the concert despite of having a bad cold.D. Trung had a bad cold. However, he went to the concert.17. _____it was raining heavily he went out without a raincoat.A. In spite B. In spite of C. However D. Although18. _____he wasn’t feeling very well; Mr. Graham went to visit his aunt as usual.A. Although B. However C. Therefore D. Still19. He was offered the job______ his qualifications were poor.A. despite B. in spite of C. even though D. Whereas19. ______ we were in town, we often met him.A. For B. Although C. So D. When20. She didn’t get the job ____ she had all the necessary qualifications.A. because B. although C. so D. but21. I could not eat ____ I was very hungry.A. even though B. in spite C. despite D. in spite the fact that22. In spite _____, the baseball game was not cancelled.A. the rain B. of the rain C. it was raining D. there was a rain23. ______ he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car.A. In spite B. In spite of C. Despite D. Although24. ______, he walked to the station.A. Despite being tired B. Although to be tired C. In spite being tired D. Despite tired25. The children slept well, despite _____.A. it was noise B. the noise C. of the noise D. noisy26. She left him __________ she still loved him.A. even if B. even though C. in spite of D. despite27. _______ her lack of hard work, she was promoted.A. In spite B. Even though C. in spite of D. despite of28. _______ they are brothers, they do not look like.A. Although B. Even C. Despite D. In spite of
Exercise 2: Combine these sentences using: though, although, even though1. Lion dancing is very popular in Viet Nam. My friend Anny does not enjoy it.______________________________________________________________2. Bob always walks to work. He is living in the city.______________________________________________________________3. My house is near the beach. I rarely go swimming.______________________________________________________________4. My brother is working in Ha Noi. He comes home on every public holiday.______________________________________________________________5. Paul is an Australian, he enjoys Vietnamese New year.______________________________________________________________6 Most children go to see the firework show, Linh and Mai stay home watching TV.______________________________________________________________7. Nick used to smoke. He seems to be in good health.______________________________________________________________8. I couldn’t sleep. I was tired.______________________________________________________________9. Henry’s friend is a millionaire. He hates spending money.______________________________________________________________10. We couldn’t get tickets. We queued for an hour.______________________________________________________________
Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences, beginning with the words in parentheses:1. She has plenty of money, but she is very mean. (although)______________________________________________________________2. They have a car, but they rarely use it. (though)______________________________________________________________3. He was innocent, but he was sent to prison. (although)______________________________________________________________4. He has a number of relatives living nearby, but he never visits them (even though)______________________________________________________________5. She never takes any kind of exercise, but she is quite fit and healthy. (even though)______________________________________________________________6. The keyboard wasn’t working well. She tried to finish the letter (although)______________________________________________________________7. The forecast said it would rain. It turned out to be a beautiful day. (although)______________________________________________________________8. I’m no better. I’ve taken the bill. (even though)______________________________________________________________9. The traffic was bad. I arrived at the airport on time. (though)______________________________________________________________10. I didn’t get the job. I had all necessary qualifications. (though)______________________________________________________________ 11. We enjoyed the vacation. It rained a lot. (although)______________________________________________________________ 12. She felt sick. She went to work. (though)______________________________________________________________ 13. I was really tired. I couldn’t sleep. (even though)______________________________________________________________ 14. He is very rich. He isn’t happy. (although)______________________________________________________________ 15. She couldn’t answer the question. She is very intelligent. (though)______________________________________________________________
Exercise 4: Rewrite the sentences with the word given.1. Although he has a very important job, he isn’t particularly well-paid.In spite of____________________________________________________2. Although I had never seen her before, I recognized her from a photograph.Despite _____________________________________________________ 3. She wasn’t wearing the coat although it was quite cold.In spite of _____________________________________________________ 4. We thought we’d better invite them to the party although we don’t like them very much.Despite _____________________________________________________ 5. Although I didn’t speak the language, I managed to make myself understand.In spite of_____________________________________________________ 6. Although the heat was on, the room wasn’t warm.Despite_____________________________________________________ 7. I didn’t recognize her although I’d met her twice before.In spite of_____________________________________________________8. We’re not very good friends although we’ve known each other a long time.Despite_____________________________________________________ 9. Although Minh was ill, he still came to the meeting.In spite of_____________________________________________________ 10. Although he promised that he wouldn’t be late, he didn’t arrive until 9 o’clock.Despite_____________________________________________________ 11. Although the salary was low, he accepted the job.Despite_____________________________________________________ 12. In spite of their quarrel, they remain the best of friends.Though _____________________________________________________13. In spite of the bad weather, they went out for dinner.Although_____________________________________________________ 14. In spite of his age, he still leads an active life.Even though_____________________________________________________ 15. In spite of his hard work, Ba he failed his exam.Though _____________________________________________________ 16. In spite of the heavy rain, we decided to go to see the match.Although_____________________________________________________ 17. Although they lost, the home team played very well.Despite _____________________________________________________ 18. Even though it was raining, I still went to school on time.In spite of_____________________________________________________ 19. Although she isn’t brilliant, she studies quite well.Despite_____________________________________________________ 20. She isn’t brilliant but she studies quite well.Although_____________________________________________________
V. Đáp án
Exercise 1: Choose the best answer to complete these sentences.
1. B .though 2. D. Although3. A. Despite being tired 4. C. In spite of 5. B. even though 6. D. because7. D. though8. D. A and B9. D. all are correct10. D. Although Mike didn’t speak French; he decided to settle in Paris.11. C. Mr. Ba was late for the meeting despite the fact he took a taxi.12. B. In spite of the heavy traffic, we came to the meeting on time.13. C. In spite of taking a taxi, Bill arrived late for the concert.14. B. Rich as she is, she can’t afford to buy the car.15. A. Despite feeling tired, Sue stayed up late talking to Jill.
16. A. In spite of his bad cold, Trung went to the concert.17. D. Although18. A. Although 19. C. even though 19. D. When20. B. although21. A. even though 22. B. of the rain23. D. Although24. A. Despite being tired 25. B. the noise 26. B. even though 27. C. in spite of 28. A. Although
Exercise 2: Combine these sentences using: though, although, even though